Now he is beginning to be viewed as a research theorist.

Now he is beginning to be viewed as a research theorist.

Gradually, romantic moods fade. Private Sorge, a light artillery officer, is thrown into Belgium, where fierce battles have already begun. Thousands killed, maimed, blood flow. All this could not leave a mark in the soul of the guy. Sorge would later write: "The First World War of 1914-1918 had the deepest possible impact on my entire future. Even if I had no other convictions, hatred for this war alone would be enough for me to become a communist …" … Three wounds is the result of the war for Sorge. Two beloved brothers died at the front. But not only that.

The war became a great political and civilian school for Sorge, here he found real friends who opened their eyes to many things. One such friend was an old stonemason from Hamburg, a member of a trade union, the first person to tell Richard directly that war was only good for the imperialists. In 1915, at a hospital in Berlin, Sorge became friends with Erich Correns. At night, young people read poems, hotly debated the situation in Germany, talked about freedom, about the place of man in society, about the attitude to life and the need to dedicate oneself to the service of a great goal. In another hospital, he became closely associated with the Sister of Mercy and her father, a physician who maintained close ties with independent social democratic groups. Here, for the first time, Richard heard about Lenin, about the international revolutionary movement, about political parties in Germany itself. The daughter and father willingly provided the wounded soldier with books and political pamphlets.

After receiving leave on injury, Sorge entered the medical faculty of the University of Berlin – this step was prompted by sympathy for the victims of the war, he wanted not to kill, but to restore life and health. And yet he soon became convinced that medicine was not his field. He is interested in politics and only politics. He transferred from medical to political and economic faculty. Now Sorge’s desk books are the works of Marx and Engels, his cousin’s correspondence with them, and Hegel’s philosophical works. "In a few months I learned the basics of Marxism, found out the essence of the dialectical method used in practice."

The October Revolution in Russia aroused unprecedented energy in Richard. The choice was made once and for all: revolutionary work. Call to fight to overthrow the existing system … He joins the Communist Party of Germany. Party life began. Sorge creates a circle among sailors. During the uprising he took part in demonstrations. And in the lull – exams, lectures, student meetings.

At the age of 24, Sorge graduated from the university – now he has a doctorate in law and sociology. Sorge’s popularity grew. That was the popularity of a clever agitator, a highly qualified party worker. Richard was known, students and workers came to him. In 1920 he became the editor of the party newspaper. Richard has a new passion: journalism! Sorge writes a lot: the newspaper is full of whipped political articles. But he was soon arrested and sent to prison. After serving his term, he returns full of former enthusiasm. His books on political science and sociology are published. Now he is beginning to be viewed as a research theorist. And again active political activity, surveillance, persecution. This time Sorge is forced to immigrate. Party friends offer him to go to Russia. Sorge gladly agrees. "It’s my homeland," he says.

In 1925, Sorge became a citizen of the USSR and immediately joined the Communist Party. He works as a clerk, political and scientific secretary at the Institute of Marxism-Leninism. This work required not only erudition, but also great perseverance, took a lot of time. And in the evening – the club of German communists, where Richard was elected the first chairman of the board. And although the board consists of thirty people, Sorge is the most active of them.

In Moscow, Sorge met Kateryna Alexandrovna Maksimova. At first she gave him lessons in Russian, which Richard did not speak very well at the time. They became friends. Friendship grew into love. For the first time, Richard experienced a deep feeling. He met a girl who understood him. Literature, art, music – this is the field in which both dissolved.

However, Sorge does not stop working. Seventeen serious studies have been published in journals in two years: "The Financial Situation of the Proletariat in Germany," "The Economic Depression in Germany," "National Fascism in Germany." And many, many others. During the same two years he wrote voluminous works that the author himself liked (which is rare with him): "Economic Articles of the Treaty of Versailles," "New German Imperialism."

He learns from German newspapers that his works have gained wide popularity in Germany. Friends take them up in arms, enemies pour mud on the author in every possible way.

Yes, it is also a struggle. Still, Sorge is unhappy with himself. Active nature requires action. To stand face to face with the enemy, to take a direct part in the skirmishes with those who attempt the Soviet state, is what he aspires to.

In the club of German communists, he met the then head of Soviet intelligence – Jan Karlovich Berzin. Berzin liked the active nature of Sorge. He told Richard a lot about the international situation, interested him in the Far East. At another meeting with Jan Karlovich, Sorge said: "I fell ill in the Far East. Send me to China!" Richard Sorge became a military spy. "A military intelligence officer must know the military perfectly," Berzin said. "The experience of the last war is not enough now," and Richard took up the military.

Three years of living in China … What were they filled with? Organizational work. Endless trips. Meetings. Exploring the country. Richard conducted research and wrote. He studied Japanese and Chinese. He seemed to anticipate that all this might come in handy in the future. His suitcases were completely filled with scientific material about China. In a circle of Chinese journalists, he quoted the poems of the ancient poet Xiangyun: "I went from country to country … I have not been home for a long time, but as in ancient times do not know the rest of the spear and shield … "

Events of extraordinary international importance unfolded in Manchuria. The "Mukden Incident", in other words, the Japanese occupation of Manchuria, began on September 18, 1931. By the end of 1932, almost all the major cities and railway junctions of Manchuria were in Japanese hands. Occupying northern Manchuria, Japanese troops began to concentrate on the far eastern border of the Soviet Union.

Sorge’s organization required extreme efficiency. And radiograms went incessantly to the Center. At this troubled time, Sorge and his aides were at the forefront of events.

In January 1933, Sorge was recalled to Moscow. He fulfilled his task. The center was informed in advance about the events unfolding in China. Sorge suggested that could be the reason for his sudden call to Moscow.

Richard knew that with Hitler coming to power, Germany was becoming the number one potential adversary. Hitler called for the restoration of Germany’s political and military power, only to then use that power to conquer the Soviet Union. He also knew that the ruling circles of the United States, Britain, and France were pushing Japan to oppose the Soviet Union. The situation in the Far East has worsened to the extreme. Japan refused to sign a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union. She became the most likely ally of the Third Reich.

It is in this international state that Sorge returns to Moscow. The spy’s sense did not deceive him. At the next meeting, Berzin told him: "It is necessary to find out what are the plans of Germany and Japan, where the Soviet Union is in the main danger. Operation Ramsay will be its goal – english lab report writing service to protect the Soviet Union."

– Why did the operation have such a strange name – "Ramsay" – Sorge asked.

– "Ramsay" means "R. Z." and "R. Z." – This is Richard Sorge.

Richard could say that his long work in China had exhausted him to the end, that he dreamed of serious research and that he had just married Catherine Maximov. Does a man have the right to personal happiness, to a quiet job? .. After all, he has just returned.

But he didn’t say anything, didn’t even frown. Here everything personal was pushed to the background.

In 1933, Richard Sorge, under the guise of a German journalist, came to Japan, the country with the world’s harshest police regime. Here is what Sorge himself wrote about it: "The difficulty of the situation here is that there is no security at all. At no time of day or night you are not guaranteed from police intervention. This is an extreme difficulty in working in this country , this is the reason that this work is so kept in constant tension. "

Sorge spent several years studying the economy, culture, history of Japan, mastered the Japanese language, understood the structure of the economy, could think about the concentration of production; were not a secret for him and the relationship of monopolies, as well as all the nuances of the policy pursued by the ruling circles. A major orientalist came to Japan. "The level of my knowledge required to work in Japan," Sorge later wrote, "was no lower than that given by German universities. While still in China, I undertook to write several articles about Japan in order to get a general idea of It. ".

He could successfully complete several courses at the university, become a respected scientist. He could … If his active nature did not require immediate action for the benefit of people. And he saw the peace and security of the Soviet Union as the highest good. For this reason, it was worth giving up the scientist’s office life, risking his own head. "If I had to live in a peaceful society and in a peaceful political environment, I would probably become a scientist. At least, I know for sure – I would not choose the profession of spy."

In a surprisingly short time, Sorge created a well-concealed intelligence organization in Japan. Under his leadership worked two groups of underground fighters totaling 35 people.

Sorge’s organization was international in nature. Who made up its core? Richard himself is Russian by maternal line and German by paternal line; Max Clausen is a German; Branko Vukelic – Yugoslav; Ozaki Hozumi and Miyagi Etoku are Japanese. All of them had experience of underground work.